Part III, Essay IX
One considerable advantage, that arises from philosophy, consists in the sovereign antidote, which it affords to superstition and false religion. All other remedies against that pestilent distemper are vain, or, at least, uncertain. Plain good-sense, and the practice of the world, which alone serve most purposes of life, are here found ineffectual: History, as well as daily experience, affords instances of men, endowed with the strongest capacity for business and affairs, who have all their lives crouched under slavery to the grossest superstition. Even gaiety and sweetness of temper, which infuse a balm into every other wound, afford no remedy to so virulent a poison; as we may particularly observe of the fair sex, who, tho' commonly possessed of these rich presents of nature, feel many of their joys blasted by this importunate intruder. But when sound philosophy has once gained possession of the mind, superstition is effectually excluded; and one may safely affirm, that her triumph over this enemy is more compleat than over most of the vices and imperfections, incident to human nature. Love or anger, ambition or avarice, have their root in the temper and affections, which the soundest reason is scarce ever able fully to correct. But superstition, being founded on false opinion, must immediately vanish, when true philosophy has inspired juster sentiments of superior powers. The contest is here more equal between the distemper and the medicine: And nothing can hinder the latter from proving effectual, but its being false and sophisticated.°
It will here be superfluous to magnify the merits of philosophy, by displaying the pernicious tendency of that vice, of which it cures the human mind. The superstitious man, says Tully, is miserable in every scene, in every incident of life. Even sleep itself, which banishes all other cares of unhappy mortals, affords to him matter of new terror; while he examines his dreams, and finds in those visions of the night, prognostications of future calamities. I may add, that, tho' death alone can put a full period to his misery, he dares not fly to this refuge, but still prolongs a miserable existence, from a vain fear, lest he offend his maker, by using the power, with which that beneficent being has endowed him. The presents of God and Nature are ravished from us by this cruel enemy; and notwithstanding that one step would remove us from the regions of pain and sorrow, her menaces still chain us down to a hated being, which she herself chiefly contributes to render miserable.
It is observed of such as have been reduced by the calamities of life to the necessity of employing this fatal remedy, that, if the unseasonable care of their friends deprive them of that species of death, which they proposed to themselves, they seldom venture upon any other, or can summon up so much resolution, a second time, as to execute their purpose. So great is our horror of death, that when it presents itself under any form, besides that to which a man has endeavoured to reconcile his imagination, it acquires new terrors, and overcomes his feeble courage. But when the menaces of superstition are joined to this natural timidity, no wonder it quite deprives men of all power over their lives; since even many pleasures and enjoyments, to which we are carried by a strong propensity, are torn from us by this inhuman tyrant. Let us here endeavour to restore men to their native liberty, by examining all the common arguments against Suicide, and shewing, that That action may be free from every imputation of guilt or blame; according to the sentiments of all the antient philosophers.
If Suicide be criminal, it must be a transgression of our duty, either to God, our neighbour, or ourselves.
To prove, that Suicide is no transgression of our duty to God, the following considerations may perhaps suffice. In order to govern the material world, the almighty creator has established general and immutable laws, by which all bodies, from the greatest planet to the smallest particle of matter, are maintained in their proper sphere and function. To govern the animal world, he has endowed all living creatures with bodily and mental powers; with senses, passions, appetites, memory, and judgment; by which they are impelled or regulated in that course of life, to which they are destined. These two distinct principles of the material and animal world continually encroach upon each other, and mutually retard or forward each other's operation. The powers of men and of all other animals are restrained and directed by the nature and qualities of the surrounding bodies; and the modifications and actions of these bodies are incessantly altered by the operation of all animals. Man is stopped by rivers in his passage over the surface of the earth; and rivers, when properly directed, lend their force to the motion of machines, which serve to the use of man. But tho' the provinces of the material and animal powers are not kept entirely separate, there result from thence no discord or disorder in the creation: On the contrary, from the mixture, union, and contrast of all the various powers of inanimate bodies and living creatures, arises that surprizing harmony and proportion, which affords the surest argument of supreme wisdom.
The providence of the deity appears not immediately in any operation, but governs every thing by those general and immutable laws, which have been established from the beginning of time. All events, in one sense, may be pronounced the action of the almighty: They all proceed from those powers, with which he has endowed his creatures. A house, which falls by its own weight, is not brought to ruin by his providence more than one destroyed by the hands of men; nor are the human faculties less his workmanship than the laws of motion and gravitation. When the passions play, when the judgment dictates, when the limbs obey; this is all the operation of God; and upon these animate principles, as well as upon the inanimate, has he established the government of the universe.
Every event is alike important in the eyes of that infinite being, who takes in, at one glance, the most distant regions of space and remotest periods of time. There is no one event, however important to us, which he has exempted from the general laws that govern the universe, or which he has peculiarly reserved for his own immediate action and operation. The revolutions of states and empires depend upon the smallest caprice or passion of single men; and the lives of men are shortened or extended by the smallest accident of air or diet, sunshine or tempest. Nature still continues her progress and operation; and if general laws be ever broke by particular volitions of the deity, 'tis after a manner which entirely escapes human observation. As on the one hand, the elements and other inanimate parts of the creation carry on their action without regard to the particular interest and situation of men; so men are entrusted to their own judgment and discretion in the various shocks of matter, and may employ every faculty, with which they are endowed, in order to provide for their ease, happiness, or preservation.
What is the meaning, then, of that principle, that a man, who, tired of life, and hunted by pain and misery, bravely overcomes all the natural terrors of death, and makes his escape from this cruel scene; that such a man, I say, has incurred the indignation of his creator, by encroaching on the office of divine providence, and disturbing the order of the universe? Shall we assert, that the Almighty has reserved to himself, in any peculiar manner, the disposal of the lives of men, and has not submitted that event, in common with others, to the general laws, by which the universe is governed? This is plainly false. The lives of men depend upon the same laws as the lives of all other animals; and these are subjected to the general laws of matter and motion. The fall of a tower or the infusion of a poison will destroy a man equally with the meanest creature: An inundation sweeps away every thing, without distinction, that comes within the reach of its fury. Since therefore the lives of men are for ever dependent on the general laws of matter and motion; is a man's disposing of his life criminal, because, in every case, it is criminal to encroach upon these laws, or disturb their operation? But this seems absurd. All animals are entrusted to their own prudence and skill for their conduct in the world, and have full authority, as far as their power extends, to alter all the operations of nature. Without the exercise of this authority, they could not subsist a moment. Every action, every motion of a man innovates in the order of some parts of matter, and diverts, from their ordinary course, the general laws of motion. Putting together, therefore, these conclusions, we find, that human life depends upon the general laws of matter and motion, and that 'tis no encroachment on the office of providence to disturb or alter these general laws. Has not every one, of consequence, the free disposal of his own life? And may he not lawfully employ that power with which nature has endowed him?
In order to destroy the evidence of this conclusion, we must shew a reason, why this particular case is excepted. Is it because human life is of so great importance, that it is a presumption for human prudence to dispose of it? But the life of man is of no greater importance to the universe than that of an oyster. And were it of ever so great importance, the order of nature has actually submitted it to human prudence, and reduced us to a necessity, in every incident, of determining concerning it.
Were the disposal of human life so much reserved as the peculiar province of the almighty that it were an encroachment on his right for men to dispose of their own lives; it would be equally criminal to act for the preservation of life as for its destruction. If I turn aside a stone, which is falling upon my head, I disturb the course of nature, and I invade the peculiar province of the almighty, by lengthening out my life, beyond the period, which, by the general laws of matter and motion, he had assigned to it.
A hair, a fly, an insect is able to destroy this mighty being, whose life is of such importance. Is it an absurdity to suppose, that human prudence may lawfully dispose of what depends on such insignificant causes?
It would be no crime in me to divert the Nile or Danube from its course, were I able to effect such purposes. Where then is the crime of turning a few ounces of blood from their natural chanels!
Do you imagine that I repine at providence or curse my creation, because I go out of life, and put a period to a being, which, were it to continue, would render me miserable? Far be such sentiments from me. I am only convinced of a matter of fact, which you yourself acknowledge possible, that human life may be unhappy, and that my existence, if farther prolonged, would become uneligible. But I thank providence, both for the good, which I have already enjoyed, and for the power, with which I am endowed, of escaping the ill that threatens me. To you it belongs to repine at providence, who foolishly imagine that you have no such power, and who must still prolong a hated being, tho' loaded with pain and sickness, with shame and poverty.
Do you not teach, that when any ill befalls me, tho' by the malice of my enemies, I ought to be resigned to providence; and that the actions of men are the operations of the almighty as much as the actions of inanimate beings? When I fall upon my own sword, therefore, I receive my death equally from the hands of the deity, as if it had proceeded from a lion, a precipice, or a fever.
The submission, which you require to providence, in every calamity, that befalls me, excludes not human skill and industry; if possibly, by their means, I can avoid or escape the calamity. And why may I not employ one remedy as well as another?
If my life be not my own, it were criminal for me to put it in danger, as well as to dispose of it: Nor could one man deserve the appellation of Hero, whom glory or friendship transports into the greatest dangers, and another merit the reproach of Wretch or Miscreant, who puts a period to his life, from the same or like motives.
There is no being, which possesses any power or faculty, that it receives not from its creator; nor is there any one, which, by ever so irregular an action, can encroach upon the plan of his providence, or disorder the universe. Its operations are his work equally with that chain of events, which it invades; and which ever principle prevails, we may, for that very reason, conclude it to be most favoured by him. Be it animate or inanimate, rational or irrational, 'tis all a case: It's power is still derived from the supreme creator, and is alike comprehended in the order of his providence. When the horror of pain prevails over the love of life: When a voluntary action anticipates the effect of blind causes; it is only in consequence of those powers and principles, which he has implanted in his creatures. Divine providence is still inviolate, and placed far beyond the reach of human injuries.
It is impious, says the old Roman superstition, to divert rivers from their course, or invade the prerogatives of nature. 'Tis impious, says the French superstition, to inoculate for the small-pox, or usurp the business of providence, by voluntarily producing distempers and maladies. 'Tis impious, says the modern European superstition, to put a period to our own life, and thereby rebel against our creator. And why not impious, say I, to build houses, cultivate the ground, and sail upon the ocean? In all these actions, we employ our powers of mind and body to produce some innovation in the course of nature; and in none of them do we any more. They are all of them, therefore, equally innocent or equally criminal.
But you are placed by providence, like a sentinel, in a particular station; and when you desert it, without being recalled, you are guilty of rebellion against your almighty sovereign, and have incurred his displeasure. I ask, why do you conclude, that Providence has placed me in this station? For my part, I find, that I owe my birth to a long chain of causes, of which many and even the principal, depended upon voluntary actions of men. But Providence guided all these causes, and nothing happens in the universe without its consent and co-operation. If so, then neither does my death, however voluntary, happen without it's consent; and whenever pain and sorrow so far overcome my patience as to make me tired of life, I may conclude, that I am recalled from my station, in the clearest and most express terms.
It is providence, surely, that has placed me at present in this chamber: But may I not leave it, when I think proper, without being liable to the imputation of having deserted my post or station? When I shall be dead, the principles, of which I am composed, will still perform their part in the universe, and will be equally useful in the grand fabric, as when they composed this individual creature. The difference to the whole will be no greater than between my being in a chamber and in the open air. The one change is of more importance to me than the other; but not more so to the universe.
It is a kind of blasphemy to imagine, that any created being can disturb the order of the world, or invade the business of providence. It supposes, that that being possesses powers and faculties, which it received not from its creator, and which are not subordinate to his government and authority. A man may disturb society, no doubt; and thereby incur the displeasure of the almighty: But the government of the world is placed far beyond his reach and violence. And how does it appear, that the almighty is displeased with those actions, that disturb society? By the principles which he has implanted in human nature, and which inspire us with a sentiment of remorse, if we ourselves have been guilty of such actions, and with that of blame and disapprobation, if we ever observe them in others. Let us now examine, according to the method proposed, whether Suicide be of this kind of actions, and be a breach of our duty to our neighbour and to society.
A man, who retires from life, does no harm to society. He only ceases to do good; which, if it be an injury, is of the lowest kind.
All our obligations to do good to society seem to imply something reciprocal. I receive the benefits of society, and therefore ought to promote it's interest. But when I withdraw myself altogether from society, can I be bound any longer?
But allowing, that our obligations to do good were perpetual, they have certainly some bounds. I am not obliged to do a small good to society, at the expence of a great harm to myself. Why then should I prolong a miserable existence, because of some frivolous advantage, which the public may, perhaps, receive from me? If upon account of age and infirmities, I may lawfully resign any office, and employ my time altogether in fencing against these calamities, and alleviating, as much as possible, the miseries of my future life: Why may I not cut short these miseries at once by an action, which is no more prejudicial to society?
But suppose, that it is no longer in my power to promote the interest of the public: Suppose, that I am a burthen to it: Suppose, that my life hinders some person from being much more useful to the public. In such cases my resignation of life must not only be innocent but laudable. And most people, who lie under any temptation to abandon existence, are in some such situation. Those, who have health, or power, or authority, have commonly better reason to be in humour with the world.
A man is engaged in a conspiracy for the public interest; is seized upon suspicion; is threatened with the rack; and knows, from his own weakness, that the secret will be extorted from him: Could such a one consult the public interest better than by putting a quick period to a miserable life? This was the case of the famous and brave Strozzi of Florence.
Again, suppose a malefactor justly condemned to a shameful death; can any reason be imagined, why he may not anticipate his punishment, and save himself all the anguish of thinking on its dreadful approaches? He invades the business of providence no more than the magistrate did, who ordered his execution; and his voluntary death is equally advantageous to society, by ridding it of a pernicious member.
That Suicide may often be consistent with interest and with our duty to ourselves, no one can question, who allows, that age, sickness, or misfortune may render life a burthen, and make it worse even than annihilation. I believe that no man ever threw away life, while it was worth keeping. For such is our natural horror of death, that small motives will never be able to reconcile us to it. And tho' perhaps the situation of a man's health or fortune did not seem to require this remedy, we may at least be assured, that any one, who, without apparent reason, has had recourse to it, was curst with such an incurable depravity or gloominess of temper, as must poison all enjoyment, and render him equally miserable as if he had been loaded with the most grievous misfortunes.
If Suicide be supposed a crime, 'tis only cowardice can impel us to it. If it be no crime, both prudence and courage should engage us to rid ourselves at once of existence, when it becomes a burthen. 'Tis the only way, that we can then be useful to society, by setting an example, which, if imitated, would preserve to every one his chance for happiness in life, and would effectually free him from all danger of misery.
Notes for this chapter
The present text of "Of Suicide" is printed, by permission, from a proof-copy of the unpublished, 1755 version of the essay that is owned by the National Library of Scotland. This proof-copy has twenty corrections in Hume's own hand. The posthumous, 1777 edition of the essay fails to make these corrections, and it departs from the earlier printed version in paragraphing, punctuation, capitalization, and, on occasion, wording. The 1755 version of "Of Suicide" was unavailable to Green and Grose. They follow instead the 1777 edition, but introduce variations of their own. Since we cannot determine the extent to which the 1777 edition reflects Hume's wishes, the corrected, 1755 version of "Of Suicide" is the copy-text of choice. The editor is grateful to the Trustees of the National Library of Scotland for providing a photocopy of the corrected, 1755 versions of "Of Suicide" and "Of the Immortality of the Soul" and for giving permission to reprint these essays.]
De Divin. lib. ii. [Cicero, On Divination 2.72 (150).]
Agamus Deo gratias, quod nemo in vita teneri potest. Seneca, Epist. xii. [Seneca, Epistles, no. 12: "On Old Age," sec. 10: "And let us thank God that no man can be kept in life" (Loeb translation by Richard M. Gummere).]
Tacit. Ann. lib. i. [See Tacitus, Annals 1.79 for the debate in the Roman senate over whether or not the tributaries of the Tiber should be altered. Tacitus observes that whatever the deciding factor—the protests of the colonies, the difficulty of the work, or a superstitious reluctance to alter the course assigned to rivers by nature—Piso's motion "that nothing be changed" was agreed to.]
[Filippo Strozzi (1489-1538), a leading Florentine banker and for most of his life a supporter of the Medici in Florence and at the papal court in Rome, was best remembered by later generations for his opposition to the Medici dukes of Florence, Alessandro and Cosimo. Filippo became a leader of the Florentine exiles after he and his sons were driven from Florence in 1533 by Alessandro. Following Alessandro's murder in 1537, Filippo led an exile army toward Florence, which was met and defeated by soldiers loyal to Alessandro's successor, Cosimo. Filippo was captured and subjected to torture in a vain effort to force him to implicate others. In December 1538, after seventeen months of imprisonment, he took his own life. Filippo, a classical scholar of some attainments, modeled his suicide on that of Cato the Younger. He left behind an epitaph, which read in part: "Liberty, therefore, perceiving that together with him all her hopes had perished, having surrendered herself and cursed the light of day, demanded to be sealed up in his same tomb. Thus, O Stranger, shed copious tears if the Florentine republic means anything at all to you, for Florence will never see again so noble a citizen ... whose highest command was: in dying for one's fatherland, any sort of death is sweet." Quoted in Melissa Meriam Bullard, Filippo Strozzi and the Medici (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980), pp. 176-77.]
Part III, Essay X
End of Notes
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For most college students, the path to medical school is a painful 8 year slog. After four years at an undergraduate school where you compete tooth and nail with your peers for grades, volunteer hours, and that coveted research internship, you then get to struggle through MCAT preparation and nerve-wracking medical school admissions. Luckily, there is an alternate path that you can take, one that will allow you to avoid the competitive excesses of pre-med undergrad while also (in some cases) saving one or two years in the process.
That path, of course, is to apply for a guaranteed admission medical program, better known to most people as seven or eight year medical programs. In recent years, these guaranteed admission programs have exploded in popularity, offering students a guaranteed place in medical school right out of high school. Often, they will include compressed undergraduate degree timelines that reduce the total time requirement by one or even two years in the case of Penn State and the University of Missouri Kansas City (UMKC). While they may be niche, these programs have grown increasingly competitive, and acceptance rates are lower than undergraduate acceptance rates at Harvard and Stanford.
In addition to the Common App essays, specialized programs often require you to write separate essays specifically about medicine. The majority of these essays can be grouped into a few major categories. Some will ask you why you want to be a doctor and for you to address why you specifically want to attend a guaranteed admission and/or accelerated program. A variation on this theme will ask you to explain why you wish to attend both the undergraduate and medical school in the program. Some programs will ask specifically about your patient care experiences, while more research-driven programs will ask you to discuss your interests and accomplishments in science.
The following are a couple of representative prompts from guaranteed admission medical programs that illustrate the archetypes mentioned above.
Write a personal statement indicating why you want to be a physician, why you want an accelerated program, and why you’ve selected this Penn State/Jefferson program.
A 600 word essay consisting of the following four specific parts:
Part I. Discuss why you are interested in pursuing a career in medicine. (150 words)
Part II. Describe your health-related volunteer experiences and the time devoted to them. (150 words) Provide supporting documentation in your portfolio from a supervisor, coordinator, etc.
Part III. Discuss what has attracted you to apply to Rutgers University-Newark College of Arts & Sciences, apart from the BA/MD program. (150 words)
Part IV. Discuss why you are specifically interested in attending Rutgers New Jersey Medical School (NJMS) over other medical schools. (150 words)
Responding to these prompts
Success in medicine is the synthesis of two equally important factors: a passion for science and a passion for serving humanity and caring for other human beings. Medical care is not just about recognizing symptoms, making diagnoses, and prescribing the correct course of treatment. The second word in the phrase “medical care” is equally important. A top-notch doctor must be able to care for patients and make sure that their emotional state improves alongside the physical healing. Medical schools know this all too well, and so both of these are core themes that you must touch upon in your essay.
Demonstrating passion for science is relatively easy. A good starting point is pure scientific passion for biology or biochemistry, which you should discuss both as an intellectual pursuit and as a extracurricular focus. Intellectually, you should mention what aspects of biology, or even of a specialized biological field like genetics or neuroscience, appeal to you and why. On the extracurricular side, you should discuss what activities, ideally research ones, crystallized these passions. If your resume lacks strong biology credentials, chemistry can be an imperfect substitute. Without chemistry or biology, you have to get more creative, perhaps discussing extracurricular activities where you had to leverage analysis skills, and then connecting that to the analysis skills used in diagnosing patients.
Demonstrating your understanding of and passion for the humanistic elements of medicine is easiest if you have patient care experience: volunteering at a hospital or nursing home, shadowing a physician, or ideally both. You should definitely create a narrative around your entire experience interacting with patients, but that narrative should be anchored by one or more specific anecdotes (i.e. specific patients) depending on the prompt length. If you don’t have any patient care experiences, you can draw on volunteer work or community service and follow the same pattern of framing a narrative around specific anecdotes and reflections. If you lack both of these types of experiences, then your extracurricular profile may hamstring you in the admissions process anyway, but the final imperfect method of conveying your understanding of the humanistic element of medicine is to reference a family member or friend affected by severe health problems and discuss how the experience affected and/or inspired you.
Since this is one of the most overused tropes in medical essays of all kinds, it is better to use an indirect approach to explaining how this relates to your personal career in medicine. Instead of giving the standard explanation about how seeing your mother/brother/best friend deal with cancer/lupos/lyme disease affected you deeply, you should instead use it as an opportunity to comment on how their doctor or doctors handled the relationship with your family member or friend. The doctor(s) may have done an excellent or poor job of taking care of your friend/family member’s emotional needs, but either way, that gives you a compelling entry point for a larger discussion about the role such non-scientific care plays in being a successful physician.
Justifying the undergraduate and/or medical schools
These parts of the essay are relatively less important, but you should still take them seriously and tick off all the boxes. To justify the undergraduate school, you should use the same techniques that you would for “Why School” essays (i.e. “Why Yale”) compressed as a part of a larger essay if necessary. The main tactic is to make sure that you discuss classes, professors, programs, traditions, and other elements specific to that school, not generic descriptions that could apply to several different schools. You should discuss both academic and social aspects of the school, paying special attention to unique academic programs in the sciences as well as specific social philosophies espoused by each school.
To justify the medical school, you should discuss the specific strengths of that medical school and the things that it can teach you. This can of course speak to the well-regarded sub-specialties at a particular school, such as internal medicine at the University of Washington. But there are also other elements of the medical school that you can reference as reasons you want to attend. For example, a major trauma center in the school hospital will expose you to a unique set of patient pathologies, while a school hospital located in an economically disadvantaged and culturally diverse neighborhood such as that of Drexel University will give you a more well-rounded set of patient experiences.
Explaining Why You Want to Join a Guaranteed Admission Program
This is usually the hardest part of the essay to write. For many students, the answer is simply because it saves them time or helps them avoid competition, but schools obviously don’t like hearing this. A better answer is to reinforce your commitment to becoming a physician, and mention experiences in high school that led you to make this decision (both inside of medicine and outside of medicine). The specific drivers here are not important: colleges just want to see evidence that you are mature and have carefully thought out this decision and will probe those trends more deeply during the interview.
One cautionary note for international students. Most guaranteed admission programs are open to US residents only. It’s okay if you’re a US citizen living abroad, but unless you are a US citizen or permanent resident, you will in all likelihood be unable to gain acceptance to one of these programs.
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