Anagene Case Study Answers

Anagenesis is an evolutionary pattern defined by a gradual change that occurs in a species without the need for splitting. This contrasts with cladogenesis, which occurs when there is branching or splitting during speciation leading to two or more lineages and resulting in sister species.[1] The formation of a new species from an ancestral species is not the same as anagenesis.[2] Even though anagenesis is not defined by speciation, speciation can assist the process of anagenesis. When speciation occurs and different lineages branch off, if progress is made in one direction without extinction or species selection, then anagenesis occurs.[3]

Hypotheses[edit]

One hypothesis is that during the speciation event in anagenetic evolution, the original populations will increase quickly, and then rack up genetic variation over long periods of time by mutation and recombination in a stable environment. Other factors such as selection or genetic drift will have such a significant effect on genetic material and physical traits that a species can be acknowledged as being different from the previous.[4]

Development[edit]

An alternative definition offered for anagenesis is as follows: progeny relationships between designated taxa with one or more denominated taxa in line with a branch from the evolutionary tree. Taxa mat be with of species or genus and will help identify possible ancestors.[5] When looking at evolutionary descent, there are two mechanisms at play. The first process is when an alteration is made to genetic information. This means that over time there is enough of a difference in the genetic code and the way that species genes interact with each other during the developmental stage. Anagenesis can be viewed as the processes of sexual and natural selection, and genetic drift’s effect on an evolving species over time. The second process, speciation, is closely associated with cladogenesis. Speciation includes the actual separation of lineages, into two or more new species, from one specified species of origin. Cladogenesis can be seen as a similar hypothesis to anagenesis, with the addition of speciation to its mechanisms.[6] Diversity on a species-level is able to be achieved through anagenesis. With collected data, only one or two early hominin were found to be relatively close to the Plio-Pleistocene range.[7]

Anagenesis suggests that evolutionary changes can occur in a species over time to a sufficient degree that later organisms could be considered a different species, especially in the absence of fossils documenting the gradual transition from one to another.[8] This is in contrast to cladogenesis—or speciation in a sense—in which a population is split into two or more reproductively isolated groups and these groups accumulate sufficient differences to become distinct species. The punctuated equilibria hypothesis suggests that anagenesis is rare and that the rate of evolution is most rapid immediately after a split which will lead to cladogenesis, but does not completely rule out anagenesis. Distinguishing between anagenesis and cladogenesis is particularly relevant in the fossil record, where limited fossil preservation in time and space makes it difficult to distinguish between anagenesis, cladogenesis where one species replaces the other, or simple geographic immigration/emigration patterns.[8][9] Recent evolutionary studies are looking at anagenesis and cladogeneis for possible answers in developing the hominin phylogenetic tree to understand morphological diversity and the origins of Australopithecus anamensis, and this case could possibly show anagenesis in the fossil record.[10]

When enough mutations have occurred and become stable in a population so that it is significantly differentiated from an ancestral population, a new species name may be assigned. A series of such species is collectively known as an evolutionary lineage.[11][12] The various species along an evolutionary lineage are chronospecies. If the ancestral population of a chronospecies does not go extinct, then this is cladogenesis, and the ancestral population represents a paraphyletic species or paraspecies, being an evolutionary grade. This situation is quite common in species with widespread populations.[citation needed]

In humans[edit]

The modern human origins debate caused researchers to look further for answers. Researchers were curious to know if present day humans originated from Africa, or if they somehow, through anagenesis, were able to evolve from a single archaic species that lived in Afro-Eurasia.[13]Milford H. Wolpoff is paleoanthropologist whose work done when studying human fossil records explored anagenesis as a hypothesis for hominin evolution.[14] When looking at anagenesis in hominids, M. H. Wolpoff describes in terms of the ‘single-species hypothesis,’ which is characterized by thinking of the impact that culture has on a species as an adaptive system, and as an explanation to what conditions humans tend live in based on the environmental conditions, or ecological niche. When judging the effect culture has as this adaptive system, scientists must first look the modern Homo sapiens. Wolpoff contended that the ecological niche of past, extinct hominidae is distinct within the line of origin.[15] Examining early Pliocene and late Miocenes findings helps to determine the corresponding importance of anagenesis vs. cladogenesis during the period of morphological differences. These findings propose that branches of the human and chimpanzee once diverged from each other. The hominin fossils go as far as 5 to 7 million years ago (Mya).[16] Diversity on a species-level is able to be achieved through anagenesis. With collected data, only one or two early hominin were found to be relatively close to the Plio-Pleistocene range. [17] Once more research was done, specifically with the fossils of A. anamensis and A. afarensis, researchers were able to justify that these two hominin species were linked ancestrally.[18][19][20][21][22] However, looking at data collected by William H. Kimbel and other researchers, they viewed the history of early hominin fossils and concluded that actual macroevolution change via anagenesis was scarce.[23]

Phylogeny[edit]

DEM (or Dynamic Evolutionary Map) is a different way to track ancestors and relationships between organisms. The pattern of branching in phylogenetic trees and how far the branch grows after a species lineage has split and evolved, correlates with anagenesis and cladogenesis. However, in DEM dots depict the movement of these different species. Anagenesis is viewed by observing the dot movement across the DEM, whereas cladogenesis is viewed by observing the separation and movement of the dots across the map.[24]

Criticism[edit]

Controversy arises among taxonomists as to when the differences are significant enough to warrant a new species classification: Anagenesis may also be referred to as gradual evolution. The distinction of speciation and lineage evolution as anagensis or cladogenesis can be controversial, and some academics question the necessity of the terms altogether.[25][26][27]

The philosopher of science Marc Ereshefsky argues that paraphyletic taxa are the result of anagenesis.[citation needed] The lineage leading to birds has diverged significantly from lizards and crocodiles, allowing evolutionary taxonomists to classify birds separately from lizards and crocodiles, which are grouped as reptiles.[28]

Applications[edit]

Regarding social evolution, it has been suggested that social anagenesis/aromorphosis be viewed as universal or widely diffused social innovation that raises social systems' complexity, adaptability, integrity, and interconnectedness.[29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

  1. ^Futuyma, D.J. (2009). Evolution, 2nd Ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates
  2. ^Archibald, J.D., 1993. The importance of phylogenetic analysis for the assessment of species turnover: a case history of Paleocene mammals in North America. Paleobiology 19, 1e27.
  3. ^Futuyma, D.J., 1987. On the role of species in anagenesis. Am. Nat 130, 465e 473.
  4. ^Bilsborough, A. (1972). Anagenesis in Hominid Evolution. Man,7(3), new series, 481-483. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org.libdata.lib.ua.edu/stable/2800923
  5. ^MacDonald, T. & Wiley, E.O. Evo Edu Outreach (2012) 5: 14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12052-012-0387-0
  6. ^Wiley, E.O. Evo Edu Outreach (2010) 3: 499. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12052-010-0279-0
  7. ^Kimbel, W. H., Lockwood, C. A., Ward, C. V., Leakey, M. G., Rak, Y., & Johanson, D. C. (2006). Was Australopithecus anamensis ancestral to A. afarensis? A case of anagenesis in the hominin fossil record. Journal of Human Evolution , 134-152. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2006.02.003
  8. ^ abStrotz, L. C.; Allen, A. P. (2013). "Assessing the role of cladogenesis in macroevolution by integrating fossil and molecular evidence". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (8): 2904. Bibcode:2013PNAS..110.2904S. doi:10.1073/pnas.1208302110. JSTOR 42583151. 
  9. ^Heaton, Timothy H. (2016). "The Oligocene rodent Ischyromys of the Great Plains: Replacement mistaken for anagenesis". Journal of Paleontology. 67 (2): 297–308. doi:10.1017/S0022336000032224. JSTOR 1305998. 
  10. ^Kimbel, W; Lockwood, C; Ward, C; Leakey, M; Rak, Y; Johanson, D (2006). "Was Australopithecus anamensis ancestral to A. Afarensis? A case of anagenesis in the hominin fossil record". Journal of Human Evolution. 51 (2): 134–52. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2006.02.003. PMID 16630646. 
  11. ^The University of California, Berkeley resource on understanding evolution defines a lineage as "A continuous line of descent; a series of organisms, populations, cells, or genes connected by ancestor/descendent relationships." Understanding Evolution, Glossary of Terms
  12. ^The Oxford English Dictionary defines biological lineage as "a sequence of species each of which is considered to have evolved from its predecessor."OED definition of lineage
  13. ^Relethford, J.H. Heredity (2008) 100, 555–563 (2008) doi:10.1038/hdy.2008.14
  14. ^Wolpoff, M. H. (n.d.). Milford Wolpoff. Retrieved from https://sites.lsa.umich.edu/wolpoff/
  15. ^Bilsborough, A. (1972). Anagenesis in Hominid Evolution. Man,7(3), new series, 481-483. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org.libdata.lib.ua.edu/stable/2800923
  16. ^Kimbel, W. H., Lockwood, C. A., Ward, C. V., Leakey, M. G., Rak, Y., & Johanson, D. C. (2006). Was Australopithecus anamensis ancestral to A. afarensis? A case of anagenesis in the hominin fossil record. Journal of Human Evolution , 134-152. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2006.02.003
  17. ^Kimbel, W. H., Lockwood, C. A., Ward, C. V., Leakey, M. G., Rak, Y., & Johanson, D. C. (2006). Was Australopithecus anamensis ancestral to A. afarensis? A case of anagenesis in the hominin fossil record. Journal of Human Evolution , 134-152. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2006.02.003
  18. ^Gibbons, A., 2002. In search of the first hominids. Science 295, 1214e1219.
  19. ^Leakey, M.G., Feibel, C.S., McDougall, I., Walker, A., 1995. New fourmillion-year-old hominid species from Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya. Nature 376, 565e571.
  20. ^Ward, C.V., Leakey, M.G., Walker, A., 2001. Morphology of Australopithecus anamensisfrom Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya. J. Hum. Evol. 41, 255e368.
  21. ^White, T.D., 2002. Earliest hominids. In: Hartwig, W. (Ed.), The Primate Fossil Record. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 407e417
  22. ^Wolpoff, M.H., 1999. Paleoanthropology, second ed. McGraw-Hill.
  23. ^Levinton, J., 1988. Genetics, Paleontology and Macroevolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  24. ^Stephens, S., (2012). From Tree to Map¬: Using Cognitive Learning Theory to Suggest Alternative Ways to Visualize Macroevolution. Evo Edu Outreach (2012) 5:603–618. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s12052-012-0457-3
  25. ^Vaux, Felix; Trewick, Steven A.; Morgan-Richards, Mary (2016). "Lineages, splits and divergence challenge whether the terms anagenesis and cladogenesis are necessary". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 117 (2): 165–76. doi:10.1111/bij.12665. 
  26. ^Allmon, Warren (2017). "Species, lineages, splitting, and divergence: why we still need 'anagenesis' and 'cladogenesis'". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 120 (2): 474–479. doi:10.1111/bij.12885. 
  27. ^Vaux, Felix; Trewick, Steven A.; Morgan-Richards, Mary (2017). "Speciation through the looking-glass". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 120 (2): 480–488. doi:10.1111/bij.12872. 
  28. ^Ereshefsky, Marc (2001). "Philosophy of Biological Classification". Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. doi:10.1038/npg.els.0003447. ISBN 0-470-01617-5. 
  29. ^Grinin, Leonid; Korotayev, Andrey (2009). "Social Macroevolution: Growth of the World System Integrity and a System of Phase Transitions". World Futures. 65 (7): 477–506. doi:10.1080/02604020902733348. 

As expansion has been the main focus for Anagene Inc., continuous changes in an emerging field has made it difficult to assess costs and give investors a clear insight on projected sales. It is important to understand the nature of the external environment the company is operating within. The genome field is relatively new and with many breakthrough technologies entering the industry. However, the company has seen success, as it has leveraged microelectronics in its microarray design. The company has found an opportunity in this new niche market and has shifted its focus from research and development to manufacturing research applications. The company’s main operations are now narrowed down to their work stations and cartridge sales. Even though future trends are forecasted to be optimistic, with large fluctuations occurring and limited information on hand, the company is “still feeling their way in the dark.” The main issue faced by Anagene Inc. is that the margins for cartridges have been decreasing and standard costs have increased about 40%. Furthermore, since product costs have been unpredictably fluctuating from month-to-month, gross margins have been fluctuating accordingly, which makes it difficult to understand profitability. There are three alternative ways to solve this problem. Firstly, Anagene Inc. can choose to not assign fixed overhead costs by using the contribution margin approach. Moreover, they can assign fixed overhead costs per unit based on budgeted production or practical capacity. After a thorough evaluation of the alternatives, it is suggested that Anagene allocates its fixed overhead costs based on practical capacity because the numerator in an activity cost driver rate calculation represents the costs of supplying resource capacity to do work, therefore the denominator should represent the quantity of work the resources can perform. This method stabilizes their gross margins as well as increases their margins by charging a more accurate and representative price for the cartridges. Background 3

0 comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *