Pagurus Bernhardus Classification Essay

Pagurus bernhardus is the common marine hermit crab of Europe'sAtlantic coasts. It is sometimes referred to as the common hermit crab or soldier crab. Its carapace reaches 3.5 centimetres (1.4 in) long,[2] and is found in both rocky and sandy areas, from the Arctic waters of Iceland, Svalbard and Russia as far south as southern Portugal, but its range does not extend as far as the Mediterranean Sea. It can be found in pools on the upper shore and at the mean tide level down to a depth of approximately 140 metres (460 ft), with smaller specimens generally found in rock pools around the middle shore and lower shore regions, with larger individuals at depth. P. bernhardus is an omnivorousdetritivore[3][4] that opportunistically scavenges for carrion,[5] and which can also filter feed when necessary.[6]

Pagurus bernhardus uses shells of a number of gastropod species for protection, including Littorina littorea, Littorina obtusata, Nassarius reticulatus, Gibbula umbilicalis, Nucella lapillus and Buccinum.[7][8] In the warmer parts of its range, the sea anemoneCalliactis parasitica is often found growing on the shell occupied by Pagurus bernhardus. In colder waters, this rôle is filled by Hormathia digitata. Hermit crabs fight one another for gastropod shells and have a preference for shells of certain species.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^Michael Türkay (2011). Lemaitre R, McLaughlin P, eds. "Pagurus bernhardus (Linnaeus, 1758)". World Paguroidea & Lomisoidea database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved November 25, 2011. 
  2. ^E. Wilson (2007). "Hermit crab – Pagurus bernhardus". Marine Life Information Network. Retrieved January 22, 2009. 
  3. ^Ernst S. Reese (1969). "Behavioural adaptations of intertidal hermit crabs". American Zoologist. 9 (2): 343–355. doi:10.1093/icb/9.2.343. JSTOR 3881807. 
  4. ^J. H. Orton (1927). "On the mode of feeding of the hermit crab Eupagurus bernhardus and some other decapods". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 14 (4): 909–921. doi:10.1017/S0025315400051146. 
  5. ^M. E. Laidre & R. W. Elwood (2008). "Motivation matters: cheliped extension displays in the hermit crab, Pagurus bernhardus, are honest signals of hunger". Animal Behaviour. 75 (6): 2041–2047. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.11.011. 
  6. ^S. A. Gerlach, D. K. Ekstrøm and P. B. Eckardt (1976). "Filter feeding in the hermit crab, Pagurus bernhardus". Oecologia. 24 (3): 257–264. doi:10.1007/BF00345477. JSTOR 4215284. 
  7. ^"Common hermit crab (Pagurus bernhardus)". ARKive. Retrieved January 22, 2009. 
  8. ^ abBrian A. Hazlett (1967). "Interspecific shell fighting between Pagurus bernhardus and Pagurus cuanensis (Decapoda, Paguridea)". Sarsia. 29 (1): 215–220. doi:10.1080/00364827.1967.10411083. 

External links[edit]

original description Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp., available online athttp://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/10277#page/3/mode/1up [details]   

original description (ofCancer bernhardus Linnaeus, 1758) Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp., available online athttp://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/10277#page/3/mode/1up [details]   

basis of record Türkay, M. (2001). Decapoda, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 284-292 (look up in IMIS) [details]   

additional source Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France. 307 pp., available online athttp://www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/145561.pdf [details]   

additional source Mclaughlin, P. A.; Komai, T.; Lemaitre, R.; Listyo, R. (2010). Annotated checklist of anomuran decapod crustaceans of the world (exclusive of the Kiwaoidea and families Chirostylidae and Galatheidae of the Galatheoidea. Part I – Lithodoidea, Lomisoidea and Paguroidea. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Supplement No 23, 5-107. [details]  Available for editors   [request] 

additional source Dyntaxa. (2013). Swedish Taxonomic Database. Accessed at www.dyntaxa.se [15-01-2013]., available online athttp://www.dyntaxa.se [details]   

additional source Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. (look up in IMIS) [details]   

basis of record (ofEupagurus bernhardus (Linnaeus, 1767)) NSBP/Doggerbank [details]   

basis of record (ofCancer bernhardus Linnaeus, 1758) Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp., available online athttp://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/10277#page/3/mode/1up [details]   

additional source (ofCancer bernhardus Linnaeus, 1758) Mclaughlin, P. A.; Komai, T.; Lemaitre, R.; Listyo, R. (2010). Annotated checklist of anomuran decapod crustaceans of the world (exclusive of the Kiwaoidea and families Chirostylidae and Galatheidae of the Galatheoidea. Part I – Lithodoidea, Lomisoidea and Paguroidea. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Supplement No 23, 5-107. [details]  Available for editors   [request] 

basis of record (ofBernhardus typicus Dana, 1851) Mclaughlin, P. A.; Komai, T.; Lemaitre, R.; Listyo, R. (2010). Annotated checklist of anomuran decapod crustaceans of the world (exclusive of the Kiwaoidea and families Chirostylidae and Galatheidae of the Galatheoidea. Part I – Lithodoidea, Lomisoidea and Paguroidea. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Supplement No 23, 5-107. [details]  Available for editors   [request] 

basis of record (ofPagurus eblaniensis Kinahan, 1860) Mclaughlin, P. A.; Komai, T.; Lemaitre, R.; Listyo, R. (2010). Annotated checklist of anomuran decapod crustaceans of the world (exclusive of the Kiwaoidea and families Chirostylidae and Galatheidae of the Galatheoidea. Part I – Lithodoidea, Lomisoidea and Paguroidea. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Supplement No 23, 5-107. [details]  Available for editors   [request] 

basis of record (ofPagurus ulidianus Bell, 1846) Mclaughlin, P. A.; Komai, T.; Lemaitre, R.; Listyo, R. (2010). Annotated checklist of anomuran decapod crustaceans of the world (exclusive of the Kiwaoidea and families Chirostylidae and Galatheidae of the Galatheoidea. Part I – Lithodoidea, Lomisoidea and Paguroidea. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Supplement No 23, 5-107. [details]  Available for editors   [request] 

basis of record (ofPagurus ulidiae Thompson, 1844) Mclaughlin, P. A.; Komai, T.; Lemaitre, R.; Listyo, R. (2010). Annotated checklist of anomuran decapod crustaceans of the world (exclusive of the Kiwaoidea and families Chirostylidae and Galatheidae of the Galatheoidea. Part I – Lithodoidea, Lomisoidea and Paguroidea. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Supplement No 23, 5-107. [details]  Available for editors   [request] 

context source (Schelde) Maris, T.; Beauchard, O.; Van Damme, S.; Van den Bergh, E.; Wijnhoven, S.; Meire, P. (2013). Referentiematrices en Ecotoopoppervlaktes Annex bij de Evaluatiemethodiek Schelde-estuarium Studie naar “Ecotoopoppervlaktes en intactness index”. Monitor Taskforce Publication Series, 2013-01. NIOZ: Yerseke. 35 pp. (look up in IMIS) [details]   
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien 
 

Lectotype , locality Southern North Sea [details]

From other sources

Biology Eats on dead organic material.
A long foreplay, to ensure the baring of the abdomen was not vain. The mating only lasts less than a minute. [details]
Habitat In the intertidal area and beneath. On rocky shores, shell bottoms and sandy and silty sediments, but never muddy. Among vegetation, as seagrass beds. Adults in shell of whelk, juveniles on beaches, often in shell of (peri)winkle and moonshells [details]
Morphology Largest and most common heremit crab in our region. An average length of 10 cm, carapace of 3,5 cm. Color: red-orange. Only two out of four legs well developed. Only one cheliped, or scissor (almost always the right one) is much bigger. The pair of scissors always bear length ridges with a row of knobs on top. Eyes positioned on a stalk. [details]
LanguageName 
Danishalmindelig eremitkrebs [details]
Dutchhermietkreeft [from synonym]heremietkreeftgewone heremietkreeft [details]
Englishhermit crab [from synonym]common hermit crab [details]
FrenchBernard-l'ermite commun [details]
Germangewöhnlicher Einsiedlerkrebs [from synonym]Bernhardskrebs [details]
Norwegian Bokmålbernakeremittkreps [details]
Norwegian Nynorskbernakeremittkreps [details]
Swedisheremitkrabba [details]

Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland 
Marine Life Information Network - UK 
To Barcode of Life (33 barcodes) 
To Biodiversity Heritage Library (191 publications) (from synonym Eupagurus bernhardus (Linnaeus, 1767))
To Biodiversity Heritage Library (234 publications) 
To Dyntaxa 
To Encyclopedia of Life 
To GenBank (22 nucleotides; 19 proteins) 
To Global Biotic Interactions (GloBI) 
To Marine Species Identification Portal 
To PESI 
To USNM Invertebrate Zoology Arthropoda Collection (41 records) 
To ITIS

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